Monday, April 15, 2024
HomeLivingIs The Golden Retriever A Good Family Dog

Is The Golden Retriever A Good Family Dog

- Advertisement -



Take A Closer Look At This Beloved Breed And See Why The Golden And Many Other Kinds Of Canines Should Be Celebrated Every Day

This post includes a selection of products we think you’ll love. When you make a purchase, Patch may earn a small commission.

Happy National Golden Retriever Day! This beloved breed has the reputation of being the perfect family dog —and for good reason. Goldens are friendly, funny, patient, smart and eager to please. They also require lots of love, plenty of exercise and some basic obedience training.

Before getting a golden retriever or any type of dog, you should do your research. Different breeds have different temperaments and needs that may or may not suit your lifestyle. The American Kennel Club is a good place to start your search, and talking to other dog owners can be quite helpful as well.

There are many breeds — including mixed breeds, of course — that make wonderful pets for different people. That said, are golden retrievers still the best family dog? Let’s look at both sides of the argument.

Picking Your Puppy Or Rescue Dog Expert Tips On Finding The Healthiest Golden Retriever Or Labrador Possible

Puppies should come from reputable breeders.

So, have you decided which breed would be right for you? If you have, then you’re ready for the next steps.

Raising the healthiest puppy or rescue dog starts at the source, meaning the place in which you get your Labrador or Golden Retriever could very well have an impact on your dog’s overall health moving forward.

This is why the steps in which you take to get your dog should be the same regardless of which breed you choose to go with.

It’s important to do plenty of research on the breeder or rescue you choose to go through to get your new Golden Retriever or Labrador dog.

And while going through a breeder can get pricey, experts urge you to stay away from online sellers, backyard breeders, and pet stores. While the price may be less off the top for your new dog when you cut a few corners, it could cost you in the long run both emotionally and financially if you wind up with an unhealthy puppy.

When going through a breeder, do thorough research to ensure the breeder is someone you can trust, is educated on the puppies they are breeding, and is able to offer you health certificates proving their puppies have been health screened and cleared before going home with you.

If you have your heart set on rescuing a Labrador or a Golden Retriever, that’s even better. There are plenty of breed specific rescues all over the United States that focus on getting these breeds into good homes.

Golden Mountain Dog: Breed Guide To The Golden Retriever Bernese Mountain Dog Mix Breed info

As a large crossbreed, the Golden Retriever Bernese Mountain Dog Mix, also known as the Golden Mountain Dog, is known for having a gentle temperament and being affectionate towards kids, making them ideal for families.

Combining the Bernese Mountain Dog and the Golden Retriever, the result is a gentle giant that’s going to win your heart if you prefer big, fluffy dogs. Due to this, they aren’t that ideal for apartments or condo units and most certainly not for tropical or hot climates.

Like many big dogs out there, this is an active breed and will need to be groomed regularly since they are fluffy-coated dogs. If you want to know whether this dog breed is for you or not, read our guide below.

Contents

  • Adoption
  • Want To Ensure Your Golden Retriever Will Be Good Around Kids Do These 3 Things

    Although most goldens are naturally good with kids, if you want to give yourself the best shot at having a golden that’s great around kids, do these three things:

    Socialize them

    We talked a little about this in the section about aggression, but to make sure that your golden is calm and confident around your kids , be sure to socialize them.

    Help them have positive experiences while kids are screaming or running around, or when you bust out the big scary stroller.

    Also, get them used to different types of people in different types of outfits and situations.

    Train them

    When your golden is obedient, you’ll be able to control them better.

    Did your kid just puke all over the floor?

    Asking your dog to sit and stay will make your life much easier.

    Did your kid just fall and bust their knee?

    They might not want your dog all up in their business right then and there, so asking your golden to sit and stay while you make everything better will also make life easier for everyone.

    Exercise them

    A tired dog is a good dog.

    If your golden has pent up energy, they can chew up the house, run around the house, or be more apt to jump on your children.

    But if you mentally and physically stimulate your dog, many of their bad behaviors will go away.

    You can get some of that energy out by training them, playing games like fetch and tug, and giving them puzzle toys.

    Golden retrievers are one of the best breeds for families with children.

    They’re sweet, gentle dogs that love being around people.

    Larry Snagged Some Crayons From His Siblings While No One Was Looking

    Dog family portrait #goldenretriever

    Nicole Del Rosario, Digital Content Producer

    AnimalsDogFeel Good

    CHANDLER, Ariz. – Meet Larry, the 4-year-old golden retriever that lives up to his breed name — in quite a colorful way.

    The Arizona pup retrieves anything he can get his paws on. Most recently, he’s snagged some red and blue crayons that got him into a big mess.

    Larry’s owner said he snagged them off the table on Monday while her kids were coloring.

    He then took them into the backyard where they melted into the grass, and of course, his fur.

    Even after three baths, Larry’s owners said he still has blue highlights.

    About the Author:

    Golden Retrievers Are Inherently Playful And Enjoying Making Friends

    Golden Retrievers are designated to the Sporting Group of dog breeds, which means they love an active lifestyle. It is essential to keep in mind their energy level when deciding to adopt a golden. For instance, they wouldn’t make very good apartment dogs, and if you’re not a fan of walking, they aren’t the right breed for you.

    Their water sporting and hunting past gives the breed unlimited energy and a love for playing outdoors and anywhere near water. They love to play fetch and will play for hours upon hours, which is perfect for families with energetic and adventurous children with large yards. The breed is not shy around new people and will welcome playtime with any companion who will join, human and animal alike.

    All About The Golden Retriever Irish Wolfhound Mix In A Nutshell

    The golden retriever Irish wolfhound mix is a friendly, intelligent, affectionate, and loyal dog, they are great family dogs because they get along with kids and other animals but they are not good as guard dogs, they are not barkers and really calm indoors but not suited for apartments.

    If you liked the article, you can share it using the share and pin buttons at the end of the post. I’ll really appreciate it ????

    Golden Retriever Vs Labrador Training And Exercise Requirements

    Labradors and Golden Retrievers are both athletic, energetic dogs who need plenty of exercise. 

    Well, if you feel that you don’t have much time to exercise and train your future dog, then you probably won’t want to get a Labrador Retriever or Golden Retriever.

    Why? Because these two brainy breeds both need lots of exercise, playtime, training, and socialization.

    While both breeds are eager to please and easy to train, they can become easily bored and may be prone to destructive behaviors if not kept mentaly stimulated.

    Puzzle games and fun mental exercises can help keep your Golden Retriever or your Labrador happy mentally, while nice long walks or jogs once or twice a day will keep them healthy and fit.

    Both the Lab and the Golden Retriever will also need plenty of playtime, so they would ideally be able to run free in a backyard or have some playdates at local dog parks.

    When it comes to training, remember that both of these breeds are eager to please so they will respond best to positive reinforcement methods using treats and praise as opposed to punishment and scolding methods.

    Golden Retrievers and Labs can be sensitive and their eagerness to please means they can be easily hurt and may even shut down if they feel they have done something wrong, so work with them using your happiest voice and a hand full of tasty training treats and you should see wonderful results!

    Blue Buffalo Life Protection Formula Natural Adult Dry Dog Food

    Golden Retriever puppy family

    We recommend this adult dry dog food from Blue Buffalo for the Golden Retriever. Made with high-quality protein, this food helps your dog build and maintain healthy muscles. It also helps meet the energy needs of a Golden Retriever, while providing them with omega 3 and 6 fatty acids to promote a shiny coat and healthy skin.

    This blend of dog food supports immune system health too, keeping your pup healthy throughout their life. It doesn’t contain any artificial flavors or preservatives either, which is always a bonus.

    Exercise

    The Golden Retriever is a very active dog with high exercise needs. You should be exercising them for around two hours a day — one hour in the morning and one hour in the afternoon. You must make sure you can dedicate this time to them before buying one of these dogs!

    Due to the fact that these dogs are a medium to large breed, you shouldn’t overexercise them as a puppy as this can be detrimental to their skeleton while they are growing. You should use the five minute rule — five minutes of exercise a day per month of their age. So, for example, if they are four months old, you should exercise them for twenty minutes.

    The Golden Retriever is intelligent and can therefore also excel at dog sports. This includes agility training and flyball!

    Family Compatibility

    Training

    Remember, these pups can excel at obedience training and other dog sports, so this is something you might want to try with them.

    Socializing

    Grooming

     

    You Shouldnt Leave Your Golden Retriever Alone For More Than 4

    Goldens create strong bonds with their owners, meaning they’re great family dogs. They’re willing to please their humans and love being around children of all ages because kids are always ready to play.

    Leaving your Golden by herself all day will only make her suffer, which in time can generate depression, separation anxiety, and in some cases destructive behavior.

    Hiring a pet walker or taking your Golden to dog care during the day can help, but none of these solutions replaces your presence. Only buy or adopt one of these dogs if you or other family members have time to play with her every day.

    Golden Retrievers: What’s Good About ’em What’s Bad About ’em

    Golden Retriever temperament, personality, training, behavior, pros and cons, advice, and information, by Michele Welton, Dog Trainer, Behavioral Consultant, Author of 15 Dog Books

    The Golden Retriever’s kindly expression says it all. This is one of the finest family dogs in the world: cheerful, demonstrative, trustworthy with everyone, and forgiving of any mistakes made by inexperienced owners.

    Give this breed two brisk walks each day, play fetch games, and take him out for a good run once a week, and he is adaptable to almost any lifestyle.

    Friendly with everyone , his bark is welcoming rather than protective.

    You must control his tendency to chew on objects and to mouth your hands — provide a box filled with toys so he can carry things around in his mouth.

    A Golden Retriever remains enthusiastically puppy-like for many years, so early obedience training is required to instill calmness and good manners.

    Eager to please and wonderfully responsive, he is nonetheless distracted by exciting sights and sounds, so you must be both patient and persistent.

    The mind and heart of a Golden is sweet and gentle, but his body is robust — until he’s taught not to pull on the leash, you’ll need good biceps to walk him.

    If you want a dog who…

    • Is large, athletic, and natural-looking
    • Has a pretty feathered coat
    • Has a cheerful, tail-wagging nature
    • Is steady-tempered and dependable with everyone
    • Is peaceful with other animals
    • Is eager to please and very responsive to training

    What About Exercise I Hear Golden Retrievers Are Very Active

    Golden Retrievers are a sporting breed and require a fair amount of exercise.

    Goldens were bred to be active and outdoors and make great companions on activities like runs, hikes, bike rides, and camping trips. 

    How much exercise depends on age. Puppies up to one year need about 5 minutes for every four weeks of age. Golden Retrievers beyond one year of age require about one hour per day of exercise.

    Issues such as advancing age, injuries, or health issues may require that you adjust exercise needs accordingly.

    Dogs are individuals, and differences in personalities and breed lines may also warrant more or less exercise. 

    Golden Retrievers are very well suited to active families. Golden Retrievers will also benefit from families with school-aged children through play activities.

    Not only will mutual play help meet the exercise needs of your Golden Retriever, but your children will benefit as well. A win, win. 

    Family Consideration: Undesirable behaviors in Golden Retrievers are often due to lack of exercise. Busy families that cannot meet the exercise requirements should contemplate other options or consider if a lower energy dog might be a better fit.

    What Makes Golden Retrievers So Amazingly Loyal And Friendly

    Golden Retriever, great family dog

    Golden Retrievers have many wonderful qualities, but the most outstanding seems to be their loyalty and friendliness. The breed is known as one of the most hardworking because they were bred to work closely with hunters.

    The qualities bred into Goldens make them extraordinarily patient and intelligent, as they were intended to be a hunter’s right hand. These qualities make them very patient with children and very receptive to obedience and skill training. The Golden Retriever breed is one of the most intelligent dog breeds and is very easy to train. This makes it effortless to create strong bonds between the dog, owner, and family.

    The Golden Retriever Vs Labrador Which One Is Right For You Madison Guthrie

    If you are in the market for a family dog, there may be no better two to choose from than the Golden Retriever and the Labrador.

    These two dogs are some of the world’s favorite breeds and for good reason! They are both highly intelligent, family oriented, great with children of all ages, eager to please, and easy to train.

    Both breeds are similar in a number of ways as well, which can make it tough for some families to choose between the two. How does someone look into those adoring faces and decide on just one?

    Here’s the thing. While Golden Retrievers and Labradors may be similar in several aspects, they are also quite different in a few ways that might really matter to you and help you decide which of these two amazing breeds would best fit into your life.

    That’s why we are going to go over everything you need to know about the Golden Retriever and the Labrador and help you compare the two in order to decide which breed would be best suited for your family, home, and lifestyle.

    Let’s start by meeting the Golden Retriever!

    Contents

    Youll Have To Hide Your Shoes Because Goldens Love To Chew

    These dogs like to carry things and, often when they’re bored, will start moving your stuff around the house. They’re famous for their chewing habits so provide her with resistant toys, specially made for heavy chewers, and don’t let her get too bored during the day.

    Lock up your shoes, telephones, remote controls, games, kitchen utensils, clothes, and small pillows, or they’ll meet a very messy end. Also, move your garbage can inside a cabinet or in a place your dog can’t access.

    She should never go through your dinner leftovers as eating human food can harm Golden Retrievers. For safety reasons, hide all electric cables before bringing your puppy or new dog home.

    The crate is a good way to keep your dog away from temptations when you’re not around. This way she’ll be in a safe place and you won’t have to worry about the Nintendo you’ve forgotten on the sofa before going to bed.

    Golden Retriever Vs Labrador Retriever Physical Appearance

    The Golden Retriever’s long, wavy coat sets him apart from the short-coated Labrador. 

    The Labrador Retriever and the Golden Retriever get mixed up with one another quite often, and it’s easy to see why. They are generally the same size and have fairly similar personalities, histories, and intelligence levels.

    However, one of the easiest ways you can tell the difference between a Labrador and a Golden Retriever is by their appearances. While at first glance the two breeds may look similar, taking a longer look will easily tell you what dog you are face to face with.

    The Golden Retriever’s coat is the biggest giveaway that he is a Golden and not a Lab. Golden Retrievers have longer, wavy coats that are typically gold or cream in color.

    Labs, on the other hand, have short, dense coats that lay flat. Their muzzles tend to be boxier and their tails are thick and strong. Labs also come in three different colors, while the Golden Retriever comes in two with slight variations of shade.

    Below is a brief overview of the Golden Retriever’s physical appearance. 

    Golden Retriever Height: 21.5 to 24 inches

    Golden Retriever Weight: 55 to 75 Pounds

    Golden Retriever Coat Color: Golden, Cream, Light Gold, Dark Gold

    Golden Retriever Coat Type: Thick, weather-resistant double layered coat with the undercoat being dense and woolly and outer coat being longer and wavy.

    And below is a brief overview of the Labrador Retriever’s physical appearance. 

    Labrador Retriever Height: 21.5 to 24.5 Inches

    Why A Golden Retriever Might Not Be Right For Your Family

    Family portrait

    Although golden retrievers make great pets, they’re not right for every family.

    Here are some reasons that goldens might not be good for your family:

    Golden retrievers are boisterous puppies

    As puppies, goldens are energetic and excitable, and a crying baby or bumbling toddler can get them riled up.

    Of course, the toddler and puppy phases will go by quick, so take this with a grain of salt, but just be aware that while your golden is a puppy they’ll require extra supervision around your children.

    Golden retrievers have needs, too

    Golden retrievers are not exactly low maintenance dogs.

    They’re high energy breeds that need lots of exercise and attention.

    A house with kids could be the perfect fit for a golden, but if you’re always away at soccer practice, or always changing diapers and trying to get the kids to sleep, it may be tough to attend to the needs of your golden retriever too.

    Is The Golden Retriever Border Collie Mix Perfect For You

    What do you get when you combine two top-tier working breeds? In this case, it’s the Golden Retriever Border Collie mix!

    Also called the Golden Border Retriever, Coltriever, Gollie, and Golden Border Collie, you’ll be hard-pressed to find a hybrid as intelligent and as devoted as this one.

    Collie Golden Retrievers aren’t without their quriks, though. Keep reading to see what sets this crossbreed apart from the rest!

    Are Golden Retriever Border Collie Mixes Good Family Dogs

    Golden Border Collies have the same exuberant personalities as their parents. Perfect for active singles and dynamic families alike, these canines are up for anything!

    With an instinctively happy temperament, they’ll have no problem sharing your home with kids, cats, or other dogs. The more, the merrier! This comes with a few caveats, however.

    Friendly and patient as they are, don’t assume that they’re natural-born social mavens. They’ll still need your help learning and practicing canine manners.

    Thankfully, the Golden Retriever Border Collie mix is a quick study.

    They’re people-pleasers and love to show off their smarts, so they’ll pick up on basic obedience in no time.

    For this reason, we can confidently say that this hybrid is a good choice for both novice and experienced owners.

    Don’t stop their training just because they master basic obedience, however.

    Golden Border Retrievers crave mental challenges, even into old age.

    Everything about their genetics pushes them to think and problem-solve.

    Nurture that ability by continuously teaching them new tricks or giving them a full-on job.

    The Golden Border Collie can efficiently work alongside farmers, ranchers, and even dog trainers! Consider the Gollie your canine assistant. You could even teach them to sort your socks. For these fluffy geniuses, the sky’s the limit.

    Remember, they don’t just need company – they need interaction and exertion.

    + Of The Best Most Cutest Golden Retriever Dog Names Ever

    August 10, 2021

    Golden Retrievers are one of the most lovable dog breeds in the world. They are known for their intelligence, loyalty, and friendliness. If you are looking to welcome a new Golden Retriever member into your family, then it is important that you find the perfect name.

    In this blog post, we have compiled 400+ of our favorite Golden Retriever puppy names. We hope these will help you choose the perfect name for your new furry Golden friend.

    Things You Should Know Before Getting A Golden Retriever

    Golden Retriever, great family dog

    The Golden Retriever is a dog breed that originated from Scotland, bred to retrieve shot waterfowl, like ducks or other upland game birds. It’s a medium to large dog at about 20 to 24 inches tall, weighing between 55 to 75 pounds. The lifespan of the Golden Retriever is around 10 to 12 years.

    Golden Retrievers are some of the most popular dogs both in the US and worldwide, thanks to their beautiful appearance and their nice characters.

    I wrote this article about some of the things you should know about Goldens, because many of them end up in shelters, abandoned as soon as their owners have realized what having a dog really means.

    Contents & Quick Navigation

    What Does A Border Collie Golden Retriever Mix Look Like

    As with most hybrids, it’s difficult to predict how Golden Border Collie puppies will turn out, and it will mostly fall to generalities.

    They usually look like the Borders, but their coats are more like the Goldens.

    Coltrievers have a proportionate head and athletic, compact bodies.

    Centered between floppy ears and wide-set brown, amber, or blue eyes, the Golden Border Retriever’s long muzzle narrows to an adorable black or brown nose.

    When it comes to the Golden Border Collie’s coat, the color possibilities seem infinite.

    This crossbreed’s fur can be just about any color imaginable: white, black, red, yellow, golden, light brown, dark brown, chocolate, fawn, English cream, or merle.

    You could see combinations or one solid color.

    There’s also a chance that your Golden Border Retriever will have markings on their face, chest, and feet.

    Coltriever coats can also vary in texture. Some of these pups end up with straighter, coarser fur, while others inherit silky waves.

    Given their parent breeds’ coat lengths, short hair is out of the question. You can expect a medium to long double coat from this fido.

    Look at Trinny in this video. An adorable Golden Retriever Border Collie mix with a unique tail and just enjoying the grass.

    How Much Upkeep Are Golden Retrievers High Maintenance

    Golden Retrievers are moderate shedders except for twice per year upon which they shed their double coats. Therefore, shedding during these twice-yearly events will be heavy

    Daily brushing is recommended during heavy sheds and once or twice per week for the rest of the year. On the plus side, Golden Retrievers do not require haircuts. 

    Owners should brush their dog’s teeth regularly and trim their nails often. In addition, ears should be cleaned frequently and checked weekly for infections.

    An occasional bath is also required. 

    Ensuring your Golden Retriever remains healthy means regular vet visits and vaccinations kept up to date. No different than any other dog breed. 

    Golden Retrievers are mostly healthy dogs. However, they can be prone to health issues such as hip dysplasia, eye conditions, and heart issues.

    Choosing a breeder that has tested for these conditions will help avoid these problems down the road.

    Feeding requirements for a Golden Retriever are average for dogs this size. They require high-quality dog food and typically eat twice per day. 

    Overall, maintenance requirements for Golden Retrievers are about average – upkeep is better than some dog breeds and worse than others.

    Shedding is the biggest issue. 

    Neutering Can Cause Health Issues To A Golden Retriever

    Researchers at the University of California have discovered that neutering has negative effects on Golden Retrievers, increasing your dog’s chances of getting joint disorders and cancer. In this post, Dr. Karen Becker talks about alternative methods of keeping your dog from breeding, such as a vasectomy or tubal ligation.

    Even if you choose not to neuter your dog she’s still prone to a long list of medical conditions, which include:

    • hypothyroidism;
    • eye disorders;
    • skin problems.

    If you own a Golden Retriever you need pet insurance that covers her for a wide range of health issues, besides accidents. This can increase your regular expenses, but it’s usually a good investment as Goldens are in the top of the most expensive breeds in terms of medical costs, with an average of $961 a year.

    Golden Retriever Vs Labrador Lifespan And Health Issues

    Adorable... Golden retriever the best family dog

    Like all dogs, both the Lab and the Golden Retriever can be prone to suffering from hereditary health issues. 

    All dogs can be predisposed to serious genetic health issues, which is just one of the reasons it is so important to make sure you are going through proper channels when getting your Lab or Golden Retriever from a breeder or shelter.

    But in general, which out of the two breeds is healthiest and who lives the longest? Let’s see.

    Golden Retriever Lifespan: The Golden Retriever has a decent lifespan for a larger dog, living anywhere from 10 to 12 years, according to the American Kennel Club.

    And while the Golden Retriever is, for the most part, a healthy dog, he can be prone to a number of serious health issues a prospective owner should be aware of.

    Golden Retriever Health Issues: 

    • EIC
    • And Bloat

    As we mentioned above, all dogs can be prone to genetic health issues, but you can stay on top of your dog’s health and start him off right by getting him tested and health screened by a professional so you know what preventative measures, if any, need to be taken to keep him happy and thriving.

    You can also help to keep your Golden Retriever or Labrador in ship shape by maintaining proper grooming practices, keeping them on a healthy diet, keeping up with routine vet visits, and making sure they get the right amount of exercise each and every day.

    But what if you have a very busy lifestyle and you don’t have much time to walk, run, or otherwise exercise your future dog?

    Teaching Your Child To Be Good Around Golden Retrievers

    So far we’ve been asking ourselves if golden retrievers are good with kids, but a better question might be this: are kids good with golden retrievers?

    Just like you need to teach your golden retriever appropriate behavior around children, you’ll probably need to teach your children appropriate behavior around dogs.

    Make sure that your kid doesn’t:

    • grab your golden’s fur, ears, tail, paws, or face
    • hit them
    • step on them or their tail
    • chase them when they don’t want to be chased

    My nephew is a year-and-a-half old and he doesn’t quite have the coordination for a gentle pet , so their physical interactions are rather limited until he gets a little older.

    Golden Retriever Characteristics That Make Them Perfect

    It’s no secret: golden retrievers are practically perfect, so much so that you can’t help but smile as soon as you see one. Chances are, because they’re smiling right back. Goldens are loyal, happy, fun-loving, caring and intelligent, and bring laughter and joy to anyone and everyone — whether it’s their person or a random person happening by. What’s not to love?

    Determining If A Golden Retriever Is A Good Family Dog

    Let’s take a look at the most common traits that make the Golden Retriever such a well-suited dog to families. As I discuss each trait, I also include certain issues that families should consider for each trait.

    If you want to read a more in-depth article on the pros and cons of a Golden Retriever, I suggest taking a look at this article when you have a moment: Golden Retriever Pros and Cons: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.

    All About The Golden Retriever Breed Mix In A Nutshell

    Is A Golden Retriever A Good Family Do

    Golden Retriever Chow mix dogs will make loving companions and great watchdogs, they need lots of attention just like all other dogs, they are not the best option if you have small children or if you are a first-time pet owner, they need their space due to their large size, also, they have high activity requirements.

    For more about rare golden retriever mixes, check out this guide to the Golden Retriever Papillon Mix here, which is even rarer and harder to find than the Golden Chow.

    What To Consider When Naming Your New Golden Retriever

    There are many things to consider when naming your new Golden Retriever. The most helpful usually end up being his or her personality, coat color, resemblance to a favorite character, or just something you find adorable about the Golden Retriever breed. You may find yourself stuck in a naming rut, but the easiest way to get out of that is to spend some time reflecting on meaningful moments, objects, and words that can provide you hints on a naming direction.


    RELATED ARTICLES
    - Advertisment -

    Most Popular

    - Advertisment -